◕ The word Sharia comes from the Arabic: sha-ra-’a, which means a way or path and by extension-the path to be followed.
● Islamic sharia (law) refers to the whole system of principles and rules which a Muslim is required to live by.
● Sharia aims at the welfare of the people in this life and in the life hereafter. The sources of Sharia guide people to adopt a set of beliefs and practices that would help them ward off evil, injury, misery, sorrow, and distress. these beliefs and practices may result in benefit, happiness, pleasure, and contentment not only in this world, but also in the next.
“Whoever follows My guidance, when it comes to you [people],
will not go astray nor fall into misery, but whoever turns away
from it will have a life of great hardship.” [Quran 20:123]
◕ The Sharia covers all aspects of human life.
Classical Sharia manuals are often divided into four parts:
■□ laws relating to personal acts of worship
■□ laws relating to commercial dealings
■□ laws relating to marriage and divorce
■□ penal laws
● The concept of Sharia is not unique to Islam and is found in nearly all of the world’s great religions.
◕ Sources of Sharia
1. Quran [the Muslim holy scripture]
2. Sunna [the sayings and behavior of the Prophet Mohammed]
3. Ijma’ [consensus of the jurists, scholars & community]
4. Qias [reasoning by analogy to the above sources]
◕ The Sharia regulates all human actions and puts them into five categories:
 Fard or Wajib [duty or obligatory]
■ performance of these actions is rewarded and their omission is punished.
 Mandub [recommended]
■ actions the performance of which is rewarded but omission of which is not punished.
 Mubah [permitted]
■ actions neither encouraged nor discouraged.
 Makruh [disliked]
■ actions disapproved of but not punishable.
 Haram [forbidden]
■ actions punishable by law.
The ultimate worth of actions is based on intention and sincerity, as mentioned by the Prophet, who said, “Actions are by intentions, and one shall only get that which one intended.”
◔ Fiqh ◔
● Fiqh is the science of Islamic Law or jurisprudence. It refers to the collection and compilation of Islamic laws based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. The word Fiqh means knowledge and understanding.
● The scholars and experts on Islamic Law have made Shari’ah easier to understand and practice by science of Fiqh. Fiqh is the explanation of the Islamic laws based on the Qur’an and Sunnah.
● Some great Muslims devoted themselves to the task of developing the science of understanding Islamic law and its practice. The four best-known compilers of Islamic law or Shari’ah are:
 Abu Hanifah Nu’man bin Thabit, known as Imam Abu Hanifah (80AH-150AH).
 Malik bin Anas, known as Imam Malik
 Muhammad bin Idris Al-Shafi’i, known as Imam Shafi’i (150-240AH).
 Ahmad bin Hanbal, known as Imam Ibn Hanbal
▩ Sharia abhors extremism and excessiveness. Excesses in spending, eating-even worship-are prohibited in Islam. Sharia promotes following the middle path. True Muslims are moderate in all of their endeavors-religious and secular.
Prophet Muhammad – peace be upon him – said – “Religion is easy, and no one overburdens himself in his religion but he will be unable to continue in that way. So do not be extremists, but try to be near perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded. Gain strength by worshipping in the mornings and afternoons and during the last hours of the night.”
▩ Sharia aims at facilitating life and removing hardships. Sharia beautifies life and provides comfort. It approves of good and forbids evil. It is considerate in case of necessity and hardship.
“Allah wants ease for you, not hardship” [Quran 2:185]
▩ A general principle in Sharia holds that necessity makes the unlawful lawful. A Muslim is obliged to satisfy his hunger with lawful food and not to eat what has been declared forbidden. One may, however, in case of necessity-when permissible food is not available-eat unlawful foods such as pork to sustain life. Sharia comes from a kind and compassionate God.
“Allah does not burden any soul with more than it can bear” [Quran 2:286]
10 months ago
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